The green house effect is one of the major threats today to our ecology and environment. When the rays of sun enter a glass enclosure, they get trapped inside it and are unable to come out. This trapping of sun's energy is called Greenhouse Effect. In nature, we observe the trapping of sun's energy between the earth's surface and the surrounding atmosphere. There is thus a Greenhouse Effect in nature also. I t is gases like chloro-fluro carbons and carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. They are responsible for the Greenhouse Effect. Greenhouse effect essentially means saturation of hydrofluoric carbons in the atmosphere. These hydrofluoric carbons are emitted by freon gas used in the refrigeration and air-conditioning, or ammonia chloride in cold storage houses.
The direct effect of Greenhouse gases is to create ozone holes in the ozone layer around the earth, which prevents harmful infrared and other ultraviolet rays from reaching the earth's surface. Ozone hole is created when the ozone layer over a particular area is converted in to oxygen. This happens when chloride atoms attack ozone and take away an oxygen atom to form chlorine monoxide ozone holes. Through the holes ultraviolet rays can enter the earth. This will increase temperature of earth's surface apart from harming human beings and animals with radiation and the ice caps around the north and south poles will melt increasing sea levels everywhere. This may submerge many islands and coastal areas. Greenhouse effect thus possess a great threat to humanity, and many countries have passed laws to restrict use of hydrofluoric carbons.
The back-benchers in a class make a group of their own. They sit in the class but are not a part of the class. They have the best of both the worlds. When the teacher is reading out the lesson, they are dozing in their seats. When they are asked to solve the questions, they are busy making the cartoons. They judge the teacher properly and act accordingly. There are some teachers who always asks questions to the back-benchers. They stand up sheepishly in their seats. First of all, they pose as if they have not heard or understood the question. As a matter of fact, they are prompting some students to tell them the answers. They use all the methods for finding an answer to the question. For example, they would touch the other one with their toes or pass their hands under their seats. Their friends are always obliging. They never tell the teachers what is going on at the back of the class. Some of them are very good cartoonists. When they pose that they are writing the answers, they are actually drawing the cartoons. They pass on slips from one corner to another and sometimes, carry on glossy magazines. The sportsmen among them do not disturb anyone. They feel tired after playing the games and use their seats to relax or sleep, if possible. They always try to choose their seats behind a tall student so that he can work as their shield. When the lecture becomes dull beyond tolerance, they open their comics or novels. If they find that the teacher is observing them, they pass it to other benches. Some students bring apples or other fruits. When the teacher is busy writing on the blackboard, they have their bite without making any noise. If the recess is to begin after a long time period, they open their lunch boxes and starts tasting the snacks. They have their own code of conduct. If ever they are caught, they would never name their friends. Ask them to mimic any teacher and they would show their talents. Some of them express their art of drawing by spoiling the walls of the schools especially in the toilets.
A museum is a treasure-chest of antiquities. In it, are kept all such articles and diggings as reflect a country's culture and civilization, her historical panorama, modes and manners, its religions and relics and finally, her art and architecture. A museum is the miniature reflection of a country's ancient periods and gives a vivid picture of the customs, conventions and traditions of the nation.
In New Delhi, I had a golden opportunity ti visit the historic and famous National Museum. The building of the museum is majestic and sturdy and has many departments that cover various subjects and periods of history. As I entered the ground floor, I saw a number of articles, images, sculptures and rock-engraved scriptures and many other things of great interest and value. The entire museum has been divided into many compartments like anthological division, archaeological division and display selection etc.
Then I moved to the first floor where among other things, charts, paintings and murals were kept. Manuscripts in various languages were on display. There were ancient dresses, robes and weapons. In one corner there is the numismatics section. In this section, coins of different periods have been kept. In this section, coins of different periods have been kept. In other halls, one finds historic Ajanta and Ellora paintings with the lovers in a mood of dalliance. Just by the side of these, there is a vivid depicition of the lives of Lord Rama, Lord Krishna and Lord Budha through charts and scriptures.By having a look into these section, one really discovers India.
On the second floor, one finds the remains of Indus Valley civilization. The excavations from Harappa and Mohenjodaro, broken pitchers, beads, toys, stones and skulls throw light on the civilization of those times and one comes to the conclusion how advanced that civilization was!
The third floor houses the military equipment. these are weapons like swords and sheaths, spears and pruning hooks; shields and helmets; various dresses of the Generals and Commanders of ancient times. After seeing this part of the museum, I was thrilled because all this ancient military equipment of our past heroes and heroines inspired me.
Broadly speaking, the entire museum was a treasure-house of India's great men ad morals, historical facts, laurels and legends that are connected with the whole gamut of India's life and literature- whether they are poets or prose writers, dancers or dramatists, songsters or sculptors, scientists or galaxy-gazers, lawgivers or lexicographers and musicians or doctors.
For me, the visit to the museum was a thrilling experience and what I saw and observed in the museum is a part of the richest experiences of my life. I was deeply moved to see this vast storehouse of India's ancient glory. This visit has left a great impression on my mind.
1. State whether the following statements are true or false. (10)
I. Phonology is a study of the word pattern of a language ans) False II. According to the British R.P, there are 8 pure vowels and 12 dipthongs ans) False
III. A diphthong is a combination of any two vowels produced one after the other ans) True IV. There are only two semi-vowels in English ans) True V. There are only two nasal-consonants in English ans) False VI. An English word can have only one syllable ans) False VII. We normally use the falling tone in commands ans) True VIII.We normally use the rising tone in polite requests ans) True IX. Complex words are combinations of free morphemes ans) False X. A stem consisting of a simple free morpheme is a root ans) True 1b What are structure words? How are they different from content words? Support your answer with examples (10) English words fall into two broad types; those that belong in the dictionary like "storm" and "confabulate", called content words and those that belong in the grammar like "of" and "the", called structure words. There are a lot of difference between structure words and content words. Content Words: * They are best explained and listed in dictionary like "book", "teddy bear", or "encapsulate". * They exist in large numbers, tens or hundreds of thousands as seen in any dictionary. * Vary in frequency from common words like "beer" to very rare like "adduction"( 6 times in a 100 million words). * They are used more in written language. * They are more likely to be preceded by a pause in speech, eg: "I like...... bananas", perhaps because there are more to choose from. * Consist of nouns (eg: glass), verbs (eg: move), adjectives (eg: glossy) etc. * They are always pronounced and spelled in essentially the same way, eg: "tree", is always said with the same consonants and vowels. * Usually have more than two letters, as in "eye", "two", "inn". Structure Words: * They are best explained in the grammar, ie. in terms of how they fit into sentences. eg: "the" is a definite article goes with nouns. * They are very limited in number, consisting of 220 or so in English. * Their frequency is very high. eg: all the top ten for English and 45% of the top 100 are structure words. * They are used more in spoken language. * They are less likely to be preceded by a pause in the speech, eg: "I hate..... the referee", perhaps because there are less of them to choose from. * Consist of prepositions (eg: to), articles (eg: the), auxiliaries (eg: can) etc. * They vary in pronunciation for emphasis etc. eg: "have" can be said as /hQv/, as /h,v/ with a change of vowel and as /v/ (ve). * They can consist of one or two letters, as in " I ", "to", "in". 2. State whether the following statements will have the rising or falling tone. (10) I. I want some water. ans) Falling tone II. Please do it yourself. ans) Rising tone III. He wanted to please her. ans) Rising tone IV. Let me help you do it. ans) Rising tone V. May I help you please. ans) Rising tone VI. Are you planning to visit Kanpur? ans) Rising tone VII. I would have been glad, if I could..... ans) Rising tone VIII. What a wonderful way of saying it? ans) Rising tone IX. What can I do for you, sir? ans) Falling tone
X. Run fast, you fool. ans) Falling tone 2b. What are the main differences between vowels and consonants? (10) We can divide all speech sounds into two broad categories - vowels and consonants. When we produce a vowel sound, the air from the lungs comes out freely through the mouth and the vocal cords vibrate to produce voice. There is no closure of the air passage and no narrowing that would cause audible friction. All other sounds are called consonants. Vowels and consonants are two types of alphabets that show considerable difference between them when it comes to the purpose of usage. Vowels are five in number and they are " a,e,i,o, and u". On the other hand consonants are twenty one in number. The entire alphabet other than the five vowels constitute the consonants. It is important to note that the consonants have to combine with vowels to form genuine words. In other words it can be said that consonants on their on accord cannot combine to form meaningful words. They have to take the help of the vowels to form meaningful words. The vowels are otherwise called as "sonants" and the word "consonants" means that which take the help of the sonants or the vowels. It is rare to find two "a"s "i"s and "u"s together in a word although you can find words where two other similar vowels can appear such as good and feel. This is due to the fact that "a", "i", and "u" are called simple vowels. There are 24 consonants and they are grouped into five types; plosives, nasals, fricatives, affricates, and approximants. Plosives are usually introduced first because the kind of construction in the mouth by which they are produced is total. There are six of them: /p,b,t,d,k,g/. Nasals have the same construction as plosives except that air is allowed to pass through the nose, but not through the mouth. There are three nasals in English : bilabial, alveolar, and velar. Fricatives have a looser construction in the mouth, which allows friction to be produced at the point of contact. An affricate consonant is a close knit sequence of plosive and fricative produced by a single organ of speech An appproximant is a consonant in which the construction made by an organ of speech can't produce any friction at all. 3a. What do you understand by prefixation? Discuss various types of prefixes with examples. (10) Affixes which are attached to the beginning of a stem are called prefixes and this process is called prefixation. Negative prefixes : Contribute the meanings "not:", "opposite of", "lacking in" etc. They may be attached to adjectives, nouns, verbs, or adverbs. *Un - Unhappy, unfaithful *In - Indecent, inappropriate *Il - Illegal, illegible *Ir - Irregular, irresponsible *Im - Impossible, immovable *Dis - Dissimilar, disbelieve *Non - Non-smoker, non-violent Reversative and privative prefixes : Those prefixes which contribute the meaning reverse the action denoted by the stem ( reversative) or deprive someone or something of the object denoted by the stem (privative). *Un - Unmask, Unseat *De - Dethrone, deforest *Dis - Disarm, discomfort Pejorative prefixes : Prefixes which add to the meaning of the stem the element "bad"' "badly", "wrong", "wrongly", "false", "imitation" etc. *Mal - Malnutrition, maltreat *Mis - Mislead, misguided
*Pseudo - Pseudo-intellectual, pseudo-scientific
Number prefixes: Prefixes which contributes the idea of number (one,two,three,many,half etc.) to the meaning of the stem.
*Bi and di - Bicycle, bilingual, dioxide, diode
*Mono and uni - Monolingual, monoplane, unidirectional, unilateral
*Semi and demi - Semi-circle, semi-god
*Tri - Tricycle, tripod
Poly and multi - Polygamy, multiracial
Degree, Rank, or Size prefixes : Prefixes that contribute the idea of one thing being higher or lower than, or equal to, something else in degree, rank, or size.
*Arch - Archbishop, arch-villain
*Co - Co-author, co-operate
*Extra - Extra-large, extra-marital
*Micro - Microcomputer, microorganism
*Mini - Mini-computer, minibus
*Out - Outrun, outgrow
*Over - Overripe, overeat
*Sub - Subhuman, substandard
*Super - Superhuman, supernatural
*Under - Underestimate, undercover
Time and order prefixes : A prefix that helps to identify a thing, action etc. by relating it to some event or other action in terms of time (eg. before or after) or order (eg. following or preceding)
*Ex - Ex-president, ex-military
*Post - Post-war, post-colonial
*Pre - Pre-independence, pre-colonial
*Re - Rebuild, regain
Location prefixes : A prefix that helps to identify a thing by describing it as being located at, in front of, below, above etc. something else, or between two or more other things. Location is sometimes understood in metaphorical (abstract) sense.
*Fore - Foreground, forename
*Inter - International, intermarry
*Sub - Subnormal, subsoil
*Super - Superstructure, superscript
*Trans - Transcribe Attitude or orientation prefixes : A prefix that helps to identify something by describing its attitude or orientation towards something else.
Conversion prefixes : A prefix that changes the part of speech or the word to which it is attached.
*A - Asleep, aglow
*Be - Befriend, beheaded
*En or em - Endanger, embitter 3b. Identify the root, prefix and suffix in the following words. Immorality, Illegitimacy, Destabilization, Immodestly, Impossibility. (5)
Root : Moral , Prefix : im- , Suffix : -ity
Root : Legitim , Prefix : il- , Suffix : -acy
Root : Stabilize , Prefix : de- , Suffix : -ation
Root : Modest , Prefix : im- , Suffix : -ly
Root : Possible , Prefix : im- , Suffix : -ity 3c. Write a short note on the grammatical category called "person". (5)
The relationship between a subject and its verb, showing whether the subject is speaking about itself (first person - I or we); being spoken to (second person - you); or being spoken about (third person - he, she, it, or they).
A widely attested type of verbal inflection in human language involves person - a category that typically distinguishes among the first person (the speaker), the second person (the addressee), and the third person (anyone else). In many languages, the verb is marked for both person and number (singular or plural) of the subject. When one category is inflected for properties (such as person and number) of another, the first category is said to agree with the second. Modern English has a [comparatively] impoverished system of person and number agreement in the verb, and an inflectional affix is used only for the third person singular in the non-past tense. 4a. Identify each sentence type and the communicating function (illocutionary force) in each of the following sentences. (10)
I. You may do it. ans) Sentence type: Declarative Function : Request II. Would you like some more tea? ans) Sentence type : Interrogative Function : Request III. Will you please shut up? ans) Sentence type : Interrogative Function : Request IV. May I help you? ans) Sentence type : Interrogative Function : Yes or no question V. Must he do it? ans) Sentence type : Interrogative Function : Yes or no question VI. Forget it man, it's over. ans) Sentence type : Declarative Function : Advice VII. How nice of him to have done it! ans) Sentence type : Exclamatory Function : Strong feeling VIII. Do you mind opening the window? ans) Sentence type : Interrogative Function : Request IX. Why don't we divide the work between us? ans) Sentence type : Interrogative Function : Question X. Please take some medicine, you are really in a bad shape. ans) Sentence type : Declarative Function : Advice 4b. Distinguish between object and complement. Give examples to support your answer. (10) Objects are of two types. Direct and indirect objects. A direct object is the receiver of action within a sentence as in "He hit the ball". Be careful to distinguish between a direct object and an object complement. eg: They named their daughter Natasha In this sentence, "daughter" is the direct object and "Natasha" is the object complement, which renames or describes the direct object. The indirect object identifies to or for whom or what the action of the verb is performed. The direct object and indirect object are different people or places or things. eg 1. Then instructor gave his students A's
Direct object - A's , Indirect objects - students
eg 2. Alisha sold me her boat
Direct objects - her boat , Indirect objects - me
Incidentally, the word "me" (and similar object-form pronouns such as him, us, them) is not always an indirect object, it will also serve sometimes as a direct object.
eg: * Bless me/her/us * Call me/him/them if you have questions.
In English, nouns and their accompanying modifiers (articles and adjectives) do not change form when they are used as objects or indirect objects, as they do in many other languages. "The radio is on the desk" and "I borrowed the radio" contain exactly the same word form used for quite different functions. This is not true for pronouns, however, which use different forms for different functions. (He[subject] loves his grandmother. His grandmother loves him[object]).
A complement is any word or phrase that completes the sense of a subject, an object, or a verb. As you will see, the terminology describing predicates and complements can overlap and a bit confusing.
a) A subject complement follows a linking verb; it is normally an adjective or a noun that renames or defines in some way the subject.
* A glacier is a huge body of ice.
* Glaciers are beautiful and potentially dangerous at the same time.
* The glacier is not yet fully formed (verb form acting as an adjective, a participle.)
Adjective complements are also called predicate adjectives; noun complements are also called predicate nouns or predicate nominatives.
b) An object complement follows and modifies or refers to a direct object. It can be a noun or adjective or any word acting as a noun or adjective.
* The convention named Dogbreath Vice President to keep him happy. (The noun "Vice President" complements the direct object "Dogbreath"; the adjective "happy" complements the object "him").
*The clown got the children too excited. (The participle "excited" complements the object "children").
c) A verb complement is a direct or indirect object of a verb
*Granny left Jaison all her money. (Both "money" [the direct object] and "Jaison" [the indirect object] are said to be the verb complements of this sentence.) 5a. What are the three major types of negations? Discuss each of these with examples. (10)
A grammatical construction that contradicts (or negates ) part or all of a sentences meaning is called negation. Negation in English are classified into three major types. They are "Explicit Negation", "Affixal Negation", and "Implicit Negation".
The most commonly employed way of making negatives is by adding a "not" after the first verbal element.
eg: Neha is happy.
Neha is not happy (negation)
These types of negation are called explicit negation.
The overt negative element "not" is often contracted to reflect the patterns of speech in writing. The letter that is omitted in the process of contraction is represented by an apostrophe ( ' ) ie, "not" is written as -n't and is joined to the preceding word.
eg: * We aren't ready yet.
* She isn't ready yet.
The second type of negation is called affixal negation. Negative prefixes such as "un-, non-, in-,im-,dis-" etc are used to indicate negative meanings.
eg: *Neha is unhappy.
*Rahul disobeyed my orders.
*She is insane.
*The mission is impossible.
*He is uncontrollable.
The third type of negation is called implicit negation. It is completely different from explicit and affixal negation. Here the negation is no longer explicitly marked either in terms of using not or using a prefix such as "un". Instead of it, the negation is implied in the meaning of the verb.
eg: *Rita denied the story.
*Mohan rejected the offer.
Here the words "denied" and "rejected" are used to show the negation 5b. Identify simple, compound, and complex sentences. (10)
I. She is tall and healthy. ans) Compound sentence II. He is extremely intelligent. ans) Simple sentence III. The workers finished their job and left early. ans) Compound sentence IV. My friend who is in Delhi is not well. ans) Complex sentence V. My father, who works in Lucknow, is an efficient man. ans) Complex sentence
VI. The man in the blue shirt is the bus driver.
ans) Complex sentence
VII. The thief escaped before the police arrived.
ans) Compound sentence
VIII. If you want, I can come with you.
ans) Complex sentence
IX. Either you don't do it or do it properly.
ans) Complex sentence
X. You can take both the notebook and the pencil.
ans) Compound Sentence